Hyperledger Fabric Architecture Part 2

In my article ” Hyperledger Fabric Architecture Part 1“,  you have learned about the client applications, endorsing peers and committing peers as well as well as the ordering service. We have also discussed the transaction workflow and how consensus is reached. In this article, I shall explain the channels and membership service provider.

Channels

In permissionless blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum, all peers share and have access to the same ledger. However, this kind of blockchain may not be suitable for business applications. For example, a supplier may want to set different prices for different wholesalers, and he would not want everyone in the supply chain to view this information. In this scenario, he or she will prefer to deal with the different wholesalers separately. To solve this issue, Hyperledger Fabric came out with the novel concept of channels that allow private transactions within the same network.

Channels partition the Fabric network in such as way that only the stakeholders can view the transactions. In this way, organizations are able to utilize the same network while maintaining separation between multiple blockchains.  The mechanism works by delegating transactions to different ledgers. Members of the particular channel can communicate and transact privately. Other members of the network cannot see the transactions on that channel. The concept is illustrated in the following diagram:

The diagram above shows two channels, channel 1 and channel 2. Each channel has its own application, peers, ledger and smart contract (chaincode). In this example, channel 1 has two peers, P1 and P2 and channel 2 also has two peers, P3 and P4.  Ordering service is the same across any network and channel.

Application 1 will send transaction proposals to channel 1. P1 and P2 will then simulate and commit transactions to ledger L1 based on chaincode S1. On the other hand, Application 2 will send transaction proposals to channel 2. P3 and P4 will simulate and commit transactions to ledger L2 based on chaincode S2. 

Though our example shows peers belong to two distinct channels, in actual case peers can belong to multiple networks or channels. Peers that participate in multiple channels simulate and commit transactions to different ledgers. In addition, the same chaincode can be applied to multiple channels.

Membership Service Provider (MSP)

Hyperledger Fabric is a permissioned blockchain, therefore, every user needs permission to join the Fabric network. In order to obtain permission to join the Fabric blockchain network, the identity of every user must be validated and authenticated. The identity is  important because it determines the exact permissions over resources and access to information that user has in the Fabric network.

To verify an identity, we must employ a trusted authority. In Hyperledger Fabric, the trusted authority is the membership service provider (MSP).  The membership service provider is a component that defines the rules in which identities are validated, authenticated, and allowed access to a network. The MSP manages user IDs and authenticates clients who want to join the network. This includes providing credentials for these clients to propose transactions, defining specific roles a member might play and defining access privileges in the context of a network and channel.

The MSP uses a Certificate Authority to authenticate or revokes user certificates upon confirmed identity. In Fabric, the default Certificate Authority interface used for the MSP is the Fabric-CA API. However, organizations can choose to implement an External Certificate Authority of their choice.  Hyperledger Fabric supports many types of External Certificate Authority interfaces. As a result, a single Hyperledger Fabric network can be controlled by multiple MSPs.

The Authentication Process

In the authentication process,  the Fabric-CA identifies the application, peer, endorser, and orderer identities, and verifies them. Next, a signature is generated through the use of a Signing Algorithm and a Signature Verification Algorithm.  The Signing Algorithm utilizes the credentials of the entities associated with their respective identities and outputs an endorsement. The generated signature is a byte array that is bound to a specific identity.

In the following step, the Signature Verification Algorithm will accept the request(to join the network) if the signature byte array matches a valid signature for the inputted endorsement, or reject the request if not. If the user is accepted, he or she can see the transactions in the network and perform transactions with other actors in the network. On the other hand, if the user is rejected, he or she will not able to submit transactions to the network or view any previous transactions.

We shall explore chaincode in the next article.

Hyperledger Fabric Architecture Part 1

In a previous article, you have learned that Hyperledger Fabric has a highly modular and configurable architecture.  In this article, we shall examine the architecture in more details.

Hyperledger Fabric Network

Hyperledger Fabric is a permissioned blockchain network that provides ledger services to application clients and administrators. It allows multiple organizations to collaborate as a consortium to form the network.  The permissions to join the network are determined by a set of policies that are agreed to by the consortium when the network is configured. The network policies may change over time subject to the agreement of the organizations in the consortium.

The Hyperledger Fabric network comprises the following components:

  • Ledger 
  • Peers
  • Ordering service
  • Chaincode (aka smart contract)
  • Channels
  • Membership service provider

The Hyperledger ecosystem also consists of the client applications that allow users to interact with the network.  Moreover, The Hyperledger Fabric application SDK provides a powerful API for developers to program applications to interact with the blockchain network on behalf of the users.  

Peers

The Fabric network is comprised primarily of a set of peers or nodes. Peers maintain the state of the network and a copy of the ledger. In addition,  they also host smart contracts(chaincode).

There are two different types of peers in Fabric, the endorsing peer and the committing peer. The endorsing peers (aka endorsers) simulate and endorse transactions. On the other hand, the committing peers (aka committers) verify endorsements and validate transactions before committing transactions to the blockchain. On a separate note, the endorsing peers can also commit transactions to the blockchain. Indeed, the endorsers are special kind of committers. However, the committers cannot be the endorsers.  All peers can commit blocks to the distributed ledger.

Ordering Service

The ordering service is  made up of a cluster of special nodes known as orderers. The ordering service accepts the endorsed transactions and specifies the order in which those transactions will be committed to the ledger.  However, It does not process transactions, smart contracts, or maintains the shared ledger. 

The Transaction workflow

Let’s examine the transaction workflow that involves the client applications, the peers and the orderers.  By examining the entire transaction workflow, we will learn how consensus is reached in the process.

The transaction flow to reach consensus consists of three phases:

  • Transaction endorsement
  • Ordering
  • Validation and commitment

Phase 1 Transaction Endorsement

Transactions begin with client applications sending transaction proposals to the endorsing peers, as shown in the following diagram:

Phase 2 Transactions Simulation

At this phase, the endorsers will simulate the proposed transactions, without actually updating the ledger.  The Endorsers must hold smart contracts in order to simulate the transaction proposals. In the simulation process, the endorsing peers will capture the set of Read and Written data, known as RW Sets.

These RW sets contain data that was read from the current world state while simulating the transaction, as well as data that would have been written to the world state had the transaction been executed. The endorsing peers then sign these RW sets and send them back to the client application for use in the next phase of the transaction flow, as shown below:

Phase 3 Ordering 

At this phase,  the client application submits the endorsed transactions and the RW sets to the ordering service. The ordering service will take the endorsed transactions and RW sets and orders them into a block and delivers the block to all committing peers.

The order of transactions needs to be established to ensure that the updates to the world state are valid when they are committed to the network. Unlike the Bitcoin blockchain or Ethereum, where ordering occurs through mining, Hyperledger Fabric allows the organizations to choose the ordering mechanism that best suits that network.

Hyperledger Fabric provides three ordering mechanisms i.e. SOLO, Kafka, and Simplified Byzantine Fault Tolerance (SBFT). However, SOLO is used only for experimentation purposes and SBFT has not yet been implemented. Therefore, Kafka is the default ordering mechanism for production use. The Kafka mechanism provides a crash fault-tolerant solution to ordering.

Phase 4 Transactions Validation

At this final phase, the committing peers validate the transactions by checking that the RW sets still match the current world state. In addition, they need to ensure that Read data that existed during the simulation process is identical to the current world state.

After the committing peers validated the transactions, the transactions are then written to the ledger, and the world state is updated with the Write data from the RW Set. Committing peers are responsible for adding blocks of transactions to the blockchain and updating the world state.  Lastly, the committing peers asynchronously notify the client application the results of the transactions.

I shall discuss channels, membership service provider and chaincode in another article.

Hyperledger Fabric- A Short Introduction

You have learned about Hyperledger in one of my previous articles. Hyperledger is not a platform but it is an umbrella body that incubates and promotes business blockchain technologies.

The Hyperlegder projects,  which is known as The Hyperledger Greenhouse consists of five projects, as follows:

  • Hyperledger Fabric
  • Hyperledger Sawtooth
  • Hypeledger Burrow
  • Hyperlegder Iroha
  • Hyperledger Indy

I shall introduce Hyperledger Fabric in this article.

Hyperlegder Fabric Key Features

Hyperledger Fabric is the first blockchain project developed and hosted by the Linux Foundation.  It was initially contributed by Digital Asset and IBM, as a result of the first hackathon. According to the Linux Foundation , it was Intended as a foundation for developing DLT applications or solutions with a modular architecture.

Hyperledger Fabric is an open-source enterprise-grade permissioned distributed ledger technology (DLT) platform, designed for use in developing enterprise applications. It features some key differentiating capabilities over other popular distributed ledger or blockchain platforms.

One special feature of  Hyperledger Fabric is that it allows components, such as consensus and membership services, to be plug-and-play. Besides that, Hyperledger Fabric uses container technology to host smart contracts called chaincode that comprise the application logic of the system.

Channels are another unique feature of Hyperledger Fabric. They allow transactions to be private between two actors, while still being verified and committed to the blockchain.

Hyperledger Fabric Architecture

Hyperledger Fabric has a highly modular and configurable architecture. Therefore, enterprises can make use of its versatility to develop innovative business applications.  Besides that, it can be used to optimize the applications. Indeed, Hyperledger Fabric is well suited to develop a broad range of industry use cases including banking, finance, insurance, healthcare, human resources, supply chain and even digital music delivery.

Like Ethereum, Hyperledger Fabric also features smart contracts. However, it does not use Solidity as the programming language to code smart contracts. Hyperledger Fabric smart contracts are written in general-purpose programming languages such as Java, Go and Node.js. This means that most enterprises already have the skill set needed to develop smart contracts, therefore no additional training to learn a new language is needed.

Unlike Ethereum and many other public blockchains or DLT platforms, Hyperledger Fabric is a permissioned platform. It means the participants are known to each other, rather than anonymous and fully untrusted. In the Hyperledger Fabric ecosystem, while the participants may not fully trust one another, it can be operated under a governance model that is built with trust exist between participants, such as a legal agreement or framework for handling disputes.

Consensus Protocol

One key difference between Hyperledger Fabric and other DLT platforms is its support for pluggable consensus protocols. It enables the platform to be more effectively customized to fit particular use cases and trust models.

For example, when Hyperledger Fabric is implemented within a single enterprise or operated by a trusted authority, fully Byzantine fault tolerant consensus might be considered unnecessary as it might cause excessive drag on performance and throughput. Instead, a crash fault-tolerant (CFT) consensus protocol is more than adequate. However,  in a multi-party, decentralized platform, a more traditional Byzantine fault tolerant (BFT) consensus protocol might be required.

Another significant difference between Hyperledger Fabric and other DLT platforms is that it can implement consensus protocols that do not require a native cryptocurrency. It means it neither need a cryptocurrency to incentivize costly mining nor to fuel smart contract execution.  The avoidance of a cryptocurrency reduces some significant risk due to hacking via attack vector. Besides that, the absence of cryptographic mining operations means that the platform can be deployed with the same operational cost as other distributed platforms.

The combination of the aforementioned differentiating features makes Hyperledger Fabric one of the better performing DLT platforms available today both in terms of transaction processing and transaction confirmation latency. Besides that,  it enables privacy and confidentiality of transactions and the smart contracts (chaincode) that implement them.

I shall discuss the Hyperledger Fabric architecture and chaincode in more details in another article.

Hyperledger- A Brief Introduction

Background

In previous articles, we have learned about the bitcoin blockchain, the flagship of cryptocurrency.  Subsequently, we learned about Ethereum that features smart contracts on top of its cryptocurrency Ether. Smart contracts allow developers to create decentralized applications (dapps) on the Ethereum ecosystem.

Both bitcoin and Ethereum are amazing blockchain platforms. However,  both are facing some very challenging issues, one of them is scalability.  According to Wikipedia,  the transaction processing capacity of the bitcoin network is limited by the average block creation time of 10 minutes and the block size limit.  The transaction rate for bitcoin is between 3.3 and 7 transactions per second.

Ethereum does not fare better, its transaction rate is 15 transactions per second. Comparatively, VISA’s transaction rate is 45,000 transactions per second. Therefore, both platforms fall short in developing practical enterprise applications at the moment.

To overcome the limitations of the blockchain technologies for enterprise usage, Hyperledger was created with the vision to provide viable blockchain solutions for industries and businesses. Hyperledger is an open source effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies hosted by The Linux Foundation.

The Mission of Hyperledger

The philosophy of Hyperledger is

“Only an Open Source, collaborative software development approach can ensure the transparency, longevity, interoperability, and support required to bring blockchain technologies forward to mainstream commercial adoption.” –hyperledger.org


Indeed, the Hyperledger project has been a collaboration of players from various industries and organizations in technology, finance, banking, supply chain management, manufacturing, IoT and more. Since its inception in December 2015, it has managed to enlist many prominent members that include IBM, Intel, NEC, Cisco, J.P Morgan, AMN AMRO, ANZ Bank, Wells Fargo, Accenture, SAP and more. For the complete list, please refer to Wikipedia.

The mission of Hyperledger comprises some ambitious goals, as  illustrated in the following figure,

Adapted from Linux foundation

The Hyperledger Greenhouse

Hyperledger itself is not a platform, but it is an umbrella body that incubates and promotes a range of business blockchain technologies. The technologies include distributed ledger frameworks, smart contract engines, client libraries, graphical interfaces, utility libraries, and sample applications. The umbrella strategy was able to accelerate innovation of DLT components by encouraging the re-use of common building blocks and components(hyperledger.org, 2018).

The Hyperlegder projects known as The Hyperledger Greenhouse consists of five projects and five tools, as shown in the figure below:

Adapted from hyperledger.org

Each of the frameworks operates differently but they also allow certain interoperability among themselves. Hyperledger frameworks are generally permissioned (private)blockchains. It means that the parties need authentication and authorization to participate on the blockchain networks.

I will try to explain some of the frameworks and tools in simple language in a series of future articles. I am not an expert on Hyperledger but I have a decent understanding of the technologies via theories and practice. Recently I have enrolled in a Hyperledger course hosted by the Linux Foundation and managed to obtain a certificate of achievement. I am willing to share my knowledge with you.

Certificate  Link:  https://courses.edx.org/certificates/893fe1d735404398b56460873940ca5d

Open Source and Open Governance

The success of Hyperledger is based on the concepts of open source and open governance.  The concept of open source means that an open source software is a software that is made freely available and may be redistributed and modified. In other words, anyone has the ability to view the code, use the code, copy the code, modify the code, and, depending on the open source license, contribute back changes. (hyperledger.org, 2018)

On the other hand, open governance means that technical decisions for an open source project are made by a group of community-elected developers voted in from a pool of active participants. These decisions include things such as which features to add, how, and when to add them.  (hyperledger.org, 2018).  Hyperledger has formed a  Technical Steering Committee(TSC) to implement open governance pertaining to the Hyperledger projects. You can read about Hyperledger’s open governance by following this link

https://www.hyperledger.org/blog/2017/09/06/abcs-of-open-governance

That’s all for now. I will discuss why Hyperledger blockchain frameworks are better designed for enterprises than the public permissionless blockchains in coming articles.

Meanwhile, you may want to register for the Hyperledger Global Forum in Basel, Switzerland in December. I have registered but not sure of going yet as there is an issue with the credit card payment. By the way, there are no free tickets. It is a four days workshop with hands-on practices.